Impact of Cytomegalovirus Infection on Severe Hepatitis C Recurrence in Patients Undergoing Liver Transplantation

2016 Transplantation 100;3 (593-599)

BACKGROUND: The influence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) on recurrent hepatitis C virus (HCV) in liver grafts is controversial. Our aim was to investigate the association between CMV infection and disease and severe HCV recurrence (composite variable of presence of stage 3 to 4 fibrosis, need for retransplantation or death due to liver disease) in the first year after transplantation. METHODS: An observational, prospective, multicenter study was performed. The CMV replication was monitored by determining CMV viral load weekly during hospitalization after transplantation, twice monthly in the first 3 months after discharge, and at each follow-up visit until month 12. Liver fibrosis was assessed histologically by liver biopsy or transient elastometry. Pretransplant, intraoperative, and posttransplant variables were recorded. Multiple logistic regression was performed to study the impact of CMV on severe HCV recurrence. RESULTS: Ninety-eight patients were included. The CMV infection was detected in 48 patients (49%) in the first year posttransplant, of which 11 patients (22.9%) had CMV disease. Twenty-three patients (23.5%) had severe HCV recurrence. Of these, 17 (73.9%) developed stage 3 to 4 fibrosis, 4 (17.4%) died, and 2 (8.7%) underwent retransplantation. Only 7 of 12 (58.3%) seronegative recipients of a seropositive donor (positive donor/negative recipient [D+/R-]) received universal prophylaxis, and 10 of 12 (83.3%) D+/R- patients developed CMV replication. In the multivariate analysis, the presence of CMV D+/R- serodiscordance (odds ratio, 6.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.89-24.99; P = 0.003), and detection of a higher peak HCV viral load (odds ratio, 3.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-9.94; P = 0.005) were associated with severe HCV recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support an association between CMV D+/R- serodiscordance and severe HCV recurrence in patients undergoing liver transplantation for HCV liver disease.

Pubmed : 26371595